Alumina is used for the production of aluminium metal, through the Hall–Héroult electrochemical smelting process.
It is also used in applications such as industrial and medical ceramics, sandpapers, pigments, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
The Bayer Process is the most economic means of obtaining alumina from bauxite. Other processes for obtaining alumina from metal ores are also in use in some refineries.
The process stages are: